15 Nov

This blog comes to an end and finally, it is time to reflect on some things that I’ve learn upon completing this assignment. Firstly, I learned on the newspaper or magazine layout arrangement. According to Kress and Van Leeuwen (1998), there is information value of given and new. Information placed on the right hand side of the newspaper is given; which is something reader already knew while information on the left hand side is new; which is information that is new to reader. With that, I will understand more on the layout and know where certain information has to be placed.

Another theory that I learned through this assignment is by Putnis and Petelin (1996). In this theory, Putnis and Petelin (1996) said that a blogger should write replying on the sensitivity of your purpose, reader and context. Blogger should also understand how readers read, comprehend and their action upon documents. So, I learned to develop this theory while I’m writing.




1. Kress, G. & Van Leeuwen, T. 1998. Chapter 7: Front Pages:The Critical Analysis of Newspaper Layout, Blackwell, Oxford.

2. Putnis P & Petelin R 1996, ‘Writing to communicate’, in Professional communication, Prentice Hall, Sydney.


Phone Hacking Scandal: Journalism Ethics and Invasion of Privacy

15 Nov

(Source: The Age, 2011) 

The journalist of NOTW tabloid hacked into child murder victims’ phone, families of London’s July 7, terror attacks in 2007 and soldier’s parents that are killed in action to get information to publish to the public. The phone-hacking scandal or “hackgate” have been going on for quite a long time as a source to get information. The reporter or public investigator would use a four-digit PIN to access to celebrity’s voice mail. Eventually, Rupert Murdoch decided to shut down NOTW because it is intruding people’s privacy.

More information of phone-hacking scandal can be obtain here.

It’s true that we have to go deeper in our research to provide certain information to the public that we could not get from interviews. However, phone hacking is not an ethical way to obtain information because it is intruding people’s privacy.

According to National Union of Journalists Malaysia (2011), the code of ethics said that journalist should use fair methods to obtain information such as news, documents and photographs. Hence, the journalist of NOTW has broken the code of ethics because intruding people’s privacy is not a fair method to obtain information. Looney M. (2010) believes that ethics in reporting will allow the reader more willing to pay for the news. The five ethics in reporting are:

  1. Beware the self-fulfilling prophecy
  2. Build trust in your audience
  3. Assets your right
  4. Set standards in your community
  5. Contribute to the new growth theory

(Source: Google Image, 2011)  

No doubt, smart phones will be an ideal gift for everyone. However, experts discovered that it is easier to break into someone’s phones than ever. Companies are selling software that can break into your phone all over the Internet. Some even market it as a way to watch on your targeted people. (NewsOn6, 2011)

 Drury P. (2011) said that mobile phone hacking has been happening over the years and it can be occur through voicemail and data hacking. Voicemail hacking is when people hacking into your phone’s voicemail message and data hacking are when people obtain information stored in your phone.

 In this case, it is voicemail hacking and it is an invasion of privacy. In conclusion, phone-hacking scandal shouldn’t be practice by journalist because it is not ethical as you are invading people’s privacy. Instead, journalist should use a proper method to obtain information such as interviews.



1. The Age (2011), Hacking Case Set Murdorchs Against Each Other viewed on 15 November 2011

2. National Union of Journalist Malaysia (2011), The Star Branch: Code of Ethics viewed on 15 November 2011

3. Looney M. (2011), How Ethical Journalism Can Boost Readership viewed on 15 November 2011

4. NewsOn6 (2011), Invasion of Privacy: Cell Phone Hacking viewed on 15 November 2011

5. Drury P. (2011), Security and Protection Agency: Mobile Phone Hacking and How To Prevent It viewed on 15 November 2011

Copyright Regulation and Fair Use

15 Nov

The lines between copyright material and free content seems to be distorted in the Internet advanced world. For example, Righthaven, a copyright litigation company sued Wayne Hoehn for posting a material to prompt discussion. Righthaven argued that the posting decrease the number of hits the Review-Journal site would receive. The judge also found out that the posting is for non-commercial use.

Copyright is the right to reproduce someone’s copyrighted works. This includes, literary, pictures, blueprints, music, screenplays and audiovisuals. (Kyrnin, 2011) Ownership of a book, transferring and including acknowledgement on a copied work does not give any rights in the copyright. Permission has to be asked from the copyright holder if the work is protected by copyright. (Copyright Clearance Center, 2011)

(Source: Gaebler, 2011)

People often have the thoughts that anything posted on the Internet can be copied and downloaded. The truth is that anything on the Internet are being protected by copyright like anything you seen on book. (Washington State University, 2011) Davies G. (2011) said that copyright owner have the responsibility to avoid third party from copying their work, duplicate another copy and make recording to publish it to websites and internet. It is illegal to download or scan the copy only if it is stated to be copyright-free.

Fair use is created for the purpose of protecting copyright work for commentary, news reporting, parody, research and education.

The content can be used as fair use if it is for:

  • Commercial nature or non-profit educational purposes
  • Using only merely factual work
  • Using only portion of the copyright protected work
  • Purpose of the use competes with the potential market

 Although fair use allows people to use material for non-profit education purpose, sometimes the materials that are publish only is purely plagiarized. In this case, fair use could not be applied anymore. Fair use includes quotation of review and short passages for illustration purposes, reproduction of material for classroom use and for parody of short portions. (Copyright Clearance Center, 2011)

In my opinion, people have to always seek permission of copyright holder for any material that is used for any purposes. It is our responsibility to protect the copyright of the material used for our own purpose. It is to maintain the originality work of the author.



1. Kyrnin J. (2011), Copyright on the Web: Being on the Web Doesn’t Make it Public Domain – Protect Your Rights viewed on 13 November 2011

2. Copyright Clearance Centre (2011), On Copyright Education viewed on 13 November 2011

3. Washington State University (2011), The Internet and Copyright: How the Law Applies to the Internet viewed on 13 November 2011

4. Davies G. (2011) General guidelines on copyright: What is Copyright viewed on 13 November 2011

Racial Stereotypes in Advertising

13 Nov

Media Prima was forced to take down the series of Ramadan commercials on 8tv channel because public claims that it is racist especially to non-Muslims. The commercial shows a Chinese girl who always eat in public, wear revealing clothes and being loud during the fasting month. This advertisement creates stereotypes to non-Muslim.

(Youtube, 2011)

According to International Charter (2011), article 4 of Advertising Ethics Standard, which is social responsibility, stated that advertisement should not disregard any form of discrimination which includes race, religion, nationality, sex of age nor in any way damage human dignity. Media Prima has broken the ethics by publishing advertisement that discriminate Chinese people.

There are few examples of advertisement that stereotypes certain race. There are few examples of advertisement that stereotypes certain race. First of all, it is the Duncan Hines’ Cupcake. Many claimed the Duncan Hines’ Cupcake to be racist.

(Huffpost, 2010)

In this advertisement, Dunan Hines’ “Amazing Glazes” promotes its animated vanilla cupcakes. When the chocolate glaze is put on the cupcakes, it began to sing and beatbox. Indirectly, it became a stereotype towards black people.  (Huffpost, 2010)

There are certain guidelines to be followed in advertising whether it is for print or commercial. These guidelines are not to restrict creative advertising but to emphasis certain content that publisher should prevent when creating an advertisement. It is to avoid any misconception or misinterpretation of information. One of the advertising guidelines is insensitivity to religious beliefs of or physical and mental disabilities. For example, when a person, thing, place or idea experienced a disrespectful treatment. (Entertainment Software Rating Board, 2011)

Cadbury had to apologized to supermodel, Naomi Campbell when she claimed that their advertisement is comparing her to the chocolate bars and it is considered as racist. It uses the tagline of “Move over Naomi, there’s a new diva in town”.  She was shocked and it upset her to be described as chocolate. (Sweney M. 2011)

By looking at this, you can see that advertiser creates advertisement without looking at the guidelines and it get them into trouble when the advertisement discriminate the community. So, the next time you create an advertisement, consider the advertising ethics before hand.



1. International Charter (2011), Ethical Advertising Standard viewed on 14 November 2011

2. Huffpost (2010), Is Duncan Hines’ Cupcake Ad Racist viewed on 14 November 2011

3. Entertainment Software Rating Board (2011), Principles and Guidelines for Responsible Advertising Practices: Scope of the Principles and Guidelines viewed on 14 November 2011

4. Sweney M. (2011), Cadbury Apologizes to Naomi Campbell Over ‘Racist’ Ad viewed on 14 November 2011

5. Youtube (2011), News: Malaysia TV Station Ramadan Ads Sparks Debate viewed on 14 November 2011

Photojournalism Ethics

13 Nov

Orthodox Jewish newspaper apologized for deleting the image of Hillary Clinton and Audrey Tomason from a photograph of Barrack Obama and his staff monitoring that raid that killed Osama bin Laden. Di Tzeitung stated that it does not publish women’s images in print and the photo editor do not read the “fine print” by the White House photograph of forbidding any changes. The newspaper apologizes to the White house and US department for their mistake.

According to Stovall J. (2011), many photographers in photojournalism have been accused for controlling people or the photograph itself to improve the impact. Photojournalists have to follow certain code of ethics. Few of the code ethics said that photojournalist should not or do not intentionally contribute to alter or influence events when taking pictures. Photojournalist should not manipulate or change the images in any way that could give the viewer a wrong interpretation of the subject. (National Press Photographers Association, 2011) With that stated code of ethics, I think that photojournalist should not alter or manipulate the images but instead maintaining the picture on how it is originally is. Photojournalist always alters the image to cover the truth from the reader. However, it will one day come to a point where reader will not trust what they read on newspaper anymore.

Alteration of photo is acceptable as long as the meaning remain the same. However, if the meaning is changed, it is unethical to alter the picture. (Joann Pearlstein V. 2010) One of the similar examples is the picture of O.J. Simpson on the Time Magazine.

(, 2006)

If compared to Newsweek, the photograph been altered by darkened the picture so that Simpson will give a more criminal and evil appearance. So, altering the photographs is not ethical for publishing because it change the whole interpretation fully of photographs. In my opinion, photojournalist alters photos not because they want to change people’s perception but due to religious context. O.J. Simpson is taken as an example. People always stereotype black people as someone that is bad and evil and that is why Time’s magazine alter the photo of O.J. Simpson by darkening the image to give people a more criminal and evil impression.



1. Stovall J. (2011), Photojournalism Ethics viewed on 9 November 2011

2. National Press Photographers Association (2011), NPPA Code of Ethics viewed on 9 November 2011

3. Joann Perlstein V. (2010), Ethical Issues and Photojournalism viewed on 9 November 2011–ethical-issues-and-photojournalism.html

Print Design Vs. Web Design

25 Aug

Hilligoss (2002, pp.97) states that page is the basic elements of print documents while screen is the basic element for electronic document. The beginning for the layout of pages and screens are the concept of Gestalt psychology and the genre. Both concept best fit for genres that have visual flexibility like flyers, brochures, newsletters and websites. It do not fit genre which needed certain formatting rules.

Most of the time, readers read word by word on print documents while for electronic documents, reader prefer to scan the page and read only the highlighted words. Kress and Van Leeuwen (1998) said that reader have a certain way of reading in scanning the page. This reading path will determine the design of the page. The reading paths will start with the most salient element and to the next most salient element.

Differences of Print and Web Design

1. Dimensionality 

 (, 2010)

Print documents is 2-dimensional where most of the attention is put onto the layout. The design of print documents uses a large size canvas for viewers to scan the document.

(, 2010)

Web dimensional is 1-demensional or N-dimensional. It is basically a scrolling experience for the viewers.

2. Navigation

In web design, the N-navigation aspect follows from the hyperlink navigation where it lead for one link to another.

For web design, the navigation only consists of turning pages. It is easy and benefit the readers on their readings.

3. Multimedia, Interactivity and Overlays 

Print documents can attract reader with the high-impact visualization but web documents can do it better because of the user engagement. It allows user to click on certain link to get a more in-depth information about certain issues. (Nielsen J. 1999)



1. Holligoss, S 2002, Visual Communication: A Writer’s Guide, Clemson University, viewed  on 25th August 2011

2. Kress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T. 1998, Approaches to Media Discourse: The Critical Analysis of Newspaper Layout, Blackwell, Oxford.

3. Nielsen J. (1999), Differences Between Print Design and Web Design viewed on 25th of August 2011

New Forms of Media Publishing

24 Aug

The existence of internet since the 90s brings the new forms of media publishing. According to Naughton J. (2006), “a new organism has arrived in our media ecosystem and existing organisms have to accommodate themselves to the newcomer”. It means that the traditional media have to accommodate the new media publishing.

Journalist has change the way of getting information with the new media. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter has become their source of information. According to Singer A. (2009), there are a total of 1, 111, 991, 000 tweets to date, 200, 000, 000 Facebook users and 70, 000, 000 videos on Youtube at March 2008.

Sratmann J. (2011) mention that with the rise of social media, reporter do not gather news any longer and turn into a story but instead, it changes from an ecosystem where journalist, readers and sources share their information. Today it is faster for people to share links with other people using Facebook and twitter without taking the traditional media in account.

From the table, we can see that about 20-30% of visitors get their news from google while others still refer to Facebook to get their news. News in Facebook spread quite quickly with the sharing and “like” button.

The social media also created new trend. For example, the Barrack Obama Campaign.

According to Aaker and Smith (2010), it is the first political campaign that uses social media to spread the word, gain support and to get people take part. The campaign has a total of 5 millions viewer on 15 different social networks during the campaign. He also gain 2.5 million Facebook viewer, 115, 000 twitter followers and 50 million viewers on his youtube channel. This is something other politicians never done before.



1. Naughton J. (2006), Blogging and The Emerging Media Ecosystem viewed on 24th August 2011

2. Singer A. (2009), The Futurebuzz: Social Media, Web 2.0 and Internet Stats viewed on 24th August 2011

3. Startmann J. (2011), Business 2 Community: How Social Media Has Changed Journalism viewed on 24th August 2011

4. Aaker J. and Smith A. (2010), The Dragonfly Effect: How Obama Won with Social Media viewed on 24th August 2011